Judith Rink: A True Leader in the Field of Physical Education

First Name: 
Judith
Last Name: 
Rink
Abstract: 

Dr. Judith Rink, full professor in the Department of Physical Education at the University of South Carolina, has been described by her former doctoral students as inspiring, humorous, intelligent, professional, well-read, knowledgeable, tough, intense, charismatic, amazing, insightful, challenging, supportive, humble, caring, giving, encouraging, nurturing, interesting, confident, cutting-edge, wise, and thoughtful. When asked if she had any comments about her former students’ assessment of her, she humbly replied (in reference to herself), “I don’t know this person [they are talking about]” (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008). With 43 years of experience in physical education, a resume’ that is 24 pages in length and honors, awards, research, publications, and services too numerous to mention, anyone in the profession would consider Dr. Judith Rink to be one of the most accomplished professionals in the history of physical education. She has influenced the lives of many through her research and teaching, and is set to retire in a few short months, in June of 2009.

Dr. Judith Rink, full professor in the Department of Physical Education at the University of South Carolina, has been described by her former doctoral students as inspiring, humorous, intelligent, professional, well-read, knowledgeable, tough, intense, charismatic, amazing, insightful, challenging, supportive, humble, caring, giving, encouraging, nurturing, interesting, confident, cutting-edge, wise, and thoughtful. When asked if she had any comments about her former students’ assessment of her, she humbly replied (in reference to herself), “I don’t know this person [they are talking about]” (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008). With 43 years of experience in physical education, a resume’ that is 24 pages in length and honors, awards, research, publications, and services too numerous to mention, anyone in the profession would consider Dr. Judith Rink to be one of the most accomplished professionals in the history of physical education. She has influenced the lives of many through her research and teaching, and is set to retire in a few short months, in June of 2009.

Dr. Rink received her Bachelor of Science degree in physical education from the State University of New York at Cortland in 1965. While at Cortland, she participated in many different organizations, and often was the leader of those organizations. She was president of the Women’s Athletic Association and helped establish policies that would develop stronger relationships within the student body. She was also the leader of the Gymnastics Club and was a member of the Officials Club. She was president of Theta Phi sorority and competed on several varsity teams in basketball, volleyball and field hockey in the women’s intramural sports program (Hall of Fame Index).

She taught elementary school physical education at the Sylvan Avenue Elementary School on Long Island before completing her Master of Science degree in physical education at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNC-G) in 1968. During her years at the UNC-G, she taught physical education at the campus school. After teaching at the elementary school level for five years, and at the university level for four years, she decided to make a change. She became the Associate Director at Camp Illahee in North Carolina for four years. Once she realized there was not much security in the camp profession, Rink decided to pursue her Ph.D. in physical education at Ohio State University (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008). While at Ohio State she also worked as a Graduate Teaching Assistant and a Graduate Research Assistant. Upon completion of her Ph.D. in 1979 she became an Assistant Professor of Physical Education at the University of Toledo. After two years at Toledo, she took a position at the University of South Carolina (USC) as a Professor. She served as department chair at USC from 1988 to 1999. She is still teaching at USC. (Rink, 2008, personal communication).

Dr. Rink’s accomplishments and accolades in the field of physical education are numerous. She has received such honors and awards as the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) Project Inspiration Award in1983, the South Carolina Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (SCAHPERD) Outstanding Teacher Award in 1984, the SCAHPERD Outstanding Scholar Award in 1987, the NASPE President’s Honor Award in1996, the SCAHPERD Outstanding Service Award in 1996, the SCAHPERD Honor Award in 1998, the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Curriculum and Instruction Academy Honor Award in 1999, the American Education Research Association (AERA) Scholar Lecture Award in 2000, and the College of Education of the University of South Carolina Outstanding Researcher Award in 2003. She was also inducted into the Cortland College Alumni Hall of Fame in 1988, and the NASPE Hall of Fame in 2000 (Rink, 2008, personal communication).

Of her many honors and awards, Dr. Rink is most proud of the NASPE Hall of Fame Award, the AERA Scholar Lecture Award, and the NASPE Teacher Educator of the Year Award. These awards were more meaningful to her because they reflect exactly what she, as a teacher educator values most: service, teaching, and research (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008).

Dr. Rink has written and co-written many textbooks on physical education pedagogy. They include such titles as Designing Physical Education Curriculum for a Physically Active Lifestyle (2008), Teaching Physical Education for Learning (2005), Sports and Recreational Activities for Men and Women (2003), Secondary Physical Education: Critical Crossroads (1993), Professional Preparation: Insights and Foresights (1985), and Elementary Physical Education Methods (1984). She has also written journal articles for a number of research publications including JOPER, JOHPERD, Instrumentation for Physical Education, Quest, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport for the Secondary School Student, Student Learning in Physical Education, and Teaching Elementary Physical Education. In addition to writing for the various publications, she has served as Editor, Co-editor, and/or Reviewer for Journal of Teaching Physical Education (1982-1995), Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (1982-2002), Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (1981 to present), and Quest (1994-1996, 1998, and 2005-present) (Rink, 2008, personal communication).

Dr. Rink is a valued speaker, and has addressed many regional, state, national and international conventions with different professional papers, speaking on various topics which include the promotion of physically active lifestyles in youth, standards, assessment and accountability in physical education, the teaching of locomotor skills, the role of physical education, change in physical education, pedagogy research and teacher education (Rink, 2008, personal communication).

Dr. Rink is constantly sought after as a reviewer of manuscripts and books. She has written six grant proposals, and has been involved in numerous post-doctoral research programs, doctoral dissertations, and masters theses. She has served on the NASPE Board of Directors and is Program Director for the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program (SCPEAP). She has worked for the past nine years on the NASPE task force to develop assessment materials for the national standards and has served as a consultant for dozens of agencies from schools, to school districts, the the Education Testing Service and numerous State Departments of Education. Dr. Rink is very well known for her research in the areas of teacher effectiveness, teaching games for understanding, program assessment, and policy research in physical education (Rink, 2008, personal communication).

Judy Rink came from very humble beginnings. She was born in Queens, New York on May 2, 1944, and had three siblings; two sisters (one older, one younger) who are now deceased, and one younger brother who currently lives in New York and has three grown children. She describes her brother as “sensitive and quiet” and “a wonderful husband and father.” Her older sister was a model and a fashion designer. Her younger sister married young and left for California. Rink describes her as having been very “’mod’ in her approach to life and appearance” (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008).

She considered her youth to be typical of the ‘baby boomer’ generation. She lived in a neighborhood on Long Island, New York that was mostly composed of young couples with children. Fathers were returning from World War II, and mothers were starting to enter the work force. Her parents did not have a lot of money, but she never considered herself to be deprived. She had enough for the “ice cream man one time per week and could have Coke only one day a week.” Rink’s grandparents were German immigrants with whom she spent many summer and winter vacations in their home on the Great South Bay in New York (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008).

As a child, Rink was very creative and enjoyed building and making things, including crafts, tree houses, and pot holders. She liked “make believe” games like “secretary,” “teacher,” “army,” and “cowboys,” and claimed she was a ‘tom boy’ for most of her early adolescence. When asked if there were any important events in her childhood that helped form her as a person, Dr. Rink recalled two important factors in her development as a child. First, she knew she was loved. She was a very secure person, even though she says she was a “late bloomer” physically. In addition to being loved, she appreciates the fact that her parents taught her appropriate behavior (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008). The good parenting she received truly helped her to become the person she is today.

When her former doctoral student, Amber Phillips first met Dr. Rink, she described her as having a “quiet confidence.” Yet once she got to know her, she realized that this “quiet confidence” was basically “humbleness.” Phillips also described her as being “warm and connected,” “welcoming,” and “giving” (A. Phillips, personal communication, September 22, 2008). Another of her former students, Suzan Ayers, describes Rink using words such as “encouraging,” “insightful,” and “supportive” (S. Ayers, personal communication, September 22, 2008).

Rink describes her mother as having been a selfless, giving person “with many talents she never got to use.” For work, she held part time jobs in the schools. Her father was college educated and managed Hooker Chemical on Long Island. According to Rink, her father was not necessarily a giving or nurturing person. Her mother contracted cancer and passed away at age 63, when Rink was 40. This had a profound impact on her. She cared for her father until his death in 2003 (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008).

Judith Rink always enjoyed school. She considered herself an “above average” student, but did not consider herself in the “top group.” Her only recollection of physical education at the elementary level was the coach playing baseball with the boys while “handing the jump ropes to the girls.” In junior high there were more opportunities for sports, so she was able to “trade orchestra for intramurals.” Her physical educational experience in high school directed her towards her future career. Her high school physical education teachers inspired her to choose physical education, and by her sophomore year, she knew the career she wanted to pursue. She stated that high school sports were not what they are today, but she “played on all the teams every season.” She played sports for several reasons. One because she was athletically gifted, two because they were fun, and three because all of her friends were participating (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008).

When asked who she admired while she was in school, she said she always admired the older girls that were strong leaders. Through the years of her growth and development she has now become that leader for other young men and women in the field of physical education. Former doctoral student, Ritchie Gabbei describes her strong leadership abilities. “Judy fosters a very strong bond between her Ph.D. candidates…through a very rigorous program and by encouraging the grad students and undergrads to support each other.” At every conference she arranges a gathering of her undergraduates, graduates and faculty members at a local restaurant. Gabbei refers to this group as “Judy’s Flock” (R. Gabbei, personal communication, September 20, 2008). Ayers made reference to these dinner meetings as well, explaining:

Every year we get together for dinner at AAHPERD (convention) and share updates of where we are, what we are doing and what is new in our lives, both personally and
professionally. It’s better than a family, though, because there is no bickering and we have proven to be fantastic professional colleagues for one another over the years… She is a significant factor in the way I behave professionally (S. Ayers, personal communication, September 22, 2008).

In her undergraduate studies at Cortland, Rink described “professional attitude” as being a big part of her education. Her service in leadership for her sorority, the Women’s Athletic Association (WAA), and her gymnastics club helped develop this “professional attitude.” She played all “class team” sports as well as varsity field hockey, basketball and volleyball. She considered herself an average student academically, not necessarily concerned with earning high grades. Neither, at this point in her life, was she interested in research. Two of her professors, Dr. Joan Tillotson and Dr. Fay Corey would eventually influence Rink’s desire to learn. She states “I left Cortland wanting to be the best physical education teacher I could be” (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008).

Some of the more influential people in Rink’s post-graduate career include Marie Riley, an expert in Movement Education at the campus school at UNC-G, and Celeste Ulrich, Pearl Berlin and Kate Barrett, all of whom were professors at UNC-G at the time. Ohio State University’s Daryl Siedentop was the only physical education pedagogy professor at the doctorate level at the time that Rink was considering working towards a Ph.D. Rink describes Siedentop as a “good role model for what would be an emerging field.” She also mentioned Bette Logsdon, Larry Locke and Karen French as having made an impact on her professional career (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008).

The two areas of physical education with which Rink is most passionate are (1) improving current physical education programs and (2) improving teacher education. In one of her articles Rink addresses outcomes in physical education. She sees more schools trying to fit their current programs into the standards, rather than developing programs to meet the standards. She feels as physical educators we need to define what we expect our students to be able to learn, and that we need to have a way to assess that learning. In South Carolina, Rink has worked for teacher accountability towards curriculum at all school levels where every teacher is responsible for meeting particular outcomes. She strongly feels that where there are clear outcomes, and teachers are held accountable, programs improve, and students benefit. “Teaching that does not result in students learning is like a successful operation where the patient dies.” She views assessment as a very important part of the educational process. Teachers use the assessment to determine what needs to be done to help students to become successful in meeting the outcomes (Rink, 2007).

Dr. Rink’s work in developing standards, assessments and accountability in physical education has been ground-breaking and highly successful at all levels, from elementary school through high school. She and her colleagues have diligently worked to ensure that physical education is valued as a part of every child’s education. She not only worked as a member of the national committee that developed the National Standards for Physical Education, but she was also a committee member with South Carolina Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance which developed state-level accountability through the development of standards, assessment materials, and policies to implement those standards. Once standards were implemented for the various grade levels, specific benchmarks were established based on what they thought was “possible,” taking into account the amount of time spent in physical education class at different grade levels (Rink, et al. 2002).

This also meant aligning the curriculum and instructional methodology to meet these new state standards. This required many changes, especially at the high school level. Teachers were given guidance in scheduling longer units, creating a more diverse curriculum, and establishing “cognitive fitness material.” The committee developed assessment materials for 26 different high school activities, including written tests and “outside activity contracts.” To assess fitness, the committee agreed to use Fitnessgram scores. Committees of middle school and elementary school teachers were formed to create similar materials for their grade levels (Rink, et al., 2002).

The next task for Rink and her colleagues was to make sure that physical education was included on school report cards. With all of the supporting material, it did not take long for the Education Oversight Committee to agree to this. Rink and her colleagues developed program-level assessment and SCAHPERD was contracted to perform that assessment. This is how Rink’s SCPEAP was established in 1999. Prior to SCPEAP physical education programs were not traditionally assessed, which for some physical educators meant “the freedom to create wonderful programs.” Unfortunately for most, the lack of accountability led to poorly designed and implemented programs. Through the use of various assessment tools such as video taping, rubrics, written tests, student contracts, student logs, and Fitnessgram tests, physical education teachers, schools and districts would now be held accountable for their programs. Rink comments “We have continued to pursue this work because we have seen positive changes and the potential for more improvements.” She adds “we are more concerned that nothing will change unless we pursue this course” (Rink, 2002).

Rink’s other passion is teacher education. Since its early beginnings, physical education has not been taken seriously as a discipline because there has always been a lack of well-trained physical education teachers. In the video interview Judy Rink: PE Today and Tomorrow Rink addresses the issues underlying physical education, at all levels, from kindergarten through high school. Rink eloquently delivers her ideas on education through movement, which includes the affective domain, social, personal, cognitive, and physical development. She believes our goals as physical educators must include preparing students for an active lifestyle. The more skills they learn, the more options they will have, the more apt they will be to participate in activity later in life. She discusses her idea of clear goals, development of movement skills, lifetime fitness, and caring about each student (Jeffries, 1997).

During her career Rink has naturally experienced change. She has seen the development of movement education and the movement framework in the 1960’s that is still very successful and useful today. Additionally she has observed middle schools and high schools broadening their curriculum from a team sport-centered curriculum to more cognitive, health-related fitness programs that are more individualized. Some of the strongest high school programs she has evaluated offer choices such as dance, aerobics, weight-lifting, individual sports, as well as team sports. The units are long enough to allow students time to master the skills necessary to be successful in the sport or activity. In her opinion, successful programs are taught by caring teachers who are committed to students’ growth and development (Jeffries, 1997).

She also discusses the changes that occurred in physical education as a result of Title IX. Programs that were once separated by gender (30 boys in one class, 30 girls in another) became integrated and class sizes doubled. She notes the resulting decline in the number of quality instructional physical education programs because of Title IX. Currently physical educators are challenged with the conflicting issues of (1) the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which focuses on the core subjects and excludes physical education, and (2) the obesity and inactivity problems plaguing American youth today (Jeffries, 1997).

According to Rink, the characteristics of a strong physical education program include (1) teachers who care about their students, (2) clear outcomes at each level, (3) an instructional curriculum to meet those outcomes, and (4) the use of assessments. She feels that a good physical educator is one who is committed to continuous learning (Jeffries, 1997). She also believes a strong teacher will individualize instruction to meet students’ needs. She discusses this idea of individualization through motor skill development. Students who are less-skilled need to be encouraged and motivated at a level that meets their needs, and students that are highly skilled need to be challenged to improve to an even higher level. She also feels that all students need to be able to measure their development towards perfection of a skill so they will receive immediate feedback as to their progress (Rink, 2004).

Dr. Rink uses this idea of individualized instruction for her own graduate students. Former doctoral student Suzan Ayers writes:

Some of her doctorate students took a more measured pace to complete their work,
while others of us flew through in three years. She individualized for each person, based
on their skills and abilities. Judy is very serious about quality physical education as well
as preparing the next generation of PETE faculty; every one of us in the USC program
had a niche, it was just a matter of finding that niche and developing our preparation to
fill said niche. Nobody was any better than anyone else… Everyone got the best Judy had
to offer, all the time (S. Ayers, personal communication, September 22, 2008).

Ritchie Gabbei describes Rink’s ability to work with the individual. He describes her as being tough but nurturing. If a student did poorly on an exam, she would inquire about their approach to studying for the exam, and then gently encourage them and suggest alternative strategies. Gabbei also adds that Rink epitomizes the saying “fair is not that everyone gets the same, rather fair is that everyone gets what they need” (R. Gabbei, personal communication, September 20, 2008).

Two of Rink’s most fulfilling projects have been her work on the National Content Standards for Physical Education, and the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program (SCPEAP). She found fulfillment in these projects because of the tremendous impact they have had on physical education at the state and national levels. Observing and evaluating the positive effects of SCPEAP has been the most rewarding experience in her career (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008).

Judith Rink is greatly admired by her students for many reasons. First she is an extremely skilled teacher. Gabbei describes her as “amazing” and “a master presenter.” He says about Rink:

No one falls asleep in her course, not out of fear because she is not an imposing
personality, not because she is so charismatic (while she is a very charismatic person she
does not depend upon this trait in instruction), not because there are so many bells and
whistles in her presentation, not because her lectures are filled with lots of active learning
strategies, but because the flow of information from instructor to student is so smooth
and uninterrupted, with no conceptual leaps,…no side tracks (R. Gabbei, personal
communication, September 20, 2008).

Amber Phillips describes Rink’s brilliance as “captivating,” “welcoming,” and “thought-provoking.” Kevin Taylor uses the word “remarkable.” He remembers his first class with Dr. Rink:

I vividly remember my head spinning as I walked out of my first lecture. My classmates
and I looked at each other in a daze. I think honestly I was speechless. Professor Rink is
one of the most intelligent people I’ve ever met. Frankly, we could make do with making
her President” (K. Taylor, personal communication, September 22, 2008).

Gabbei describes a natural occurrence during a lecture:

There would be times when we would be sitting in class taking copious notes, writing
feverishly when she would get onto a thread of synthesis that our pens would stop frozen
in time, our jaws would drop and we would stare at her in amazement as she concluded
her synthesis with some extremely novel thought or idea with her characteristic little
smirk and giggle. We would literally be frozen from the impact of her synthesis as if we
were hit by a wave. And, the grad students in my cohort called it the “Judy Wave”
(R. Gabbei, personal communication, September 20, 2008).

Judith Rink is also admired for being a caring and humble individual. Darla Castelli (personal contact, October 17, 2008) describes her as an “amazing humanitarian.” Phillips describes her as being very encouraging. She says Rink has the ability to praise you with not only words, but with her body language. Phillips also heard praise from Dr. Rink through other people, which she thinks is an “endearing quality” (A. Phillips, personal contact, September 20, 2008). Ayers notes Rink’s humility when she states “Judy never believes that she is better than anyone else simply because she is one of the greatest minds our profession has ever known” (S. Ayers, personal contact, September 22, 2008).

She is also known for her depth of knowledge within the discipline of physical education. Castelli writes that her former professor has “expertise that is unlikely to be matched by the collective work of all of her doctoral students” (D. Castelli, personal contact, October 17, 2008). Ayers pursued an education under Rink because she had heard that if she wanted to be on the “cutting edge study of preparing teachers, Judy Rink was the person with whom [she] should study” (S. Ayers, personal contact, September 22, 2008). Taylor sought a doctoral education with Rink because he had heard that she was “one of the top three people in the country to study under” (K. Taylor, personal contact, September 22, 2008).

Dr. Judith Rink is also admired by her students and colleagues for her high expectations and strong work ethic. Ayers writes “As a professional she has the highest standards of excellence and a work ethic that would kill most normal humans.” She explains how Rink coerced her into choosing her dissertation topic through an off-handed comment that “it was probably too large an undertaking for one person.” Ayers adds, “ That was all I needed to hear” (S. Ayers, personal contact, September 22, 2008).

When her former doctoral students were asked “What did you gain most from your time with Dr. Rink?” they responded with the following. “We are all equals and all working toward the same end: making physical education a better enterprise” (S. Ayers, personal communication, September 22, 2008). “If there is one thing I can take with me, it would to always be humble” (A. Phillips, personal communication, September 20, 2008). “I gained a lot of knowledge about the literature and a great appreciation for making decisions based upon the literature” (R. Gabbei, personal communication, September 20, 2008). “The way I look at life, the universe, and everything, was fundamentally changed forever. I am not overstating the impact of my doctoral education on my life when I say that!” (K. Taylor, personal communication, September 22, 2008).

What was Judith Rink’s reaction to all of the comments from her former doctoral students?

I keep thinking I need to retire before they find out I am not who they think I am. I try to
treat each student no matter their level or where they are, and to separate their
performance from who they are as a person. I feel a strong obligation to each student to
do what I say I will do. Professionally I have tried to communicate that PE people do not
have to operate with a victim mentality – they need to be proactive and feel proud of who
they are (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008).

Today, Rink is still involved with AAHPERRD, NASPE, SCAHPERD, AERA, and ASCD. She is still on the faculty at the University of South Carolina, although she will be retiring in June of 2009. When asked “What are you most proud of and why?” she responded by saying “The students I have influenced who are doing a good job at their jobs. I can feel good about retiring, knowing they will carry on.” When asked if there was anything left she would like to accomplish she responded “I would still like to get the state assessment program fully institutionalized so it continues regardless of budgets, or who is in charge.” She is also motivated to launch the national assessment materials (J. E. Rink, personal communication, November 1, 2008).

In her spare time Dr. Rink enjoys gardening, jet skiing, and building things. Her favorite color is navy blue and she enjoys chocolate ice cream. She likes Weimaraner dogs, and prefers watching football over other televised sports. She loves working outdoors. Recently she shared,

Today we took the jet skis out of the water, I took the trailer and got mulch and spread it,
put the Halloween decorations away and took the dog on a morning and evening mile
walk and cleaned and waxed the jet skis. That’s a good day. The weather was beautiful
(J. E. Rink, personal contact, November 1, 2008).

Rink feels that her strongest character trait is that she does not give up easily. She considers herself persistent and patient. She feels a strong obligation to follow through regardless of the task. She is also a person who is tolerant of the differences in people. She feels her weakest character trait is her lack of tolerance for “politics and good old boy operations that [she has] had to work with.”

What makes Judy laugh? She enjoys a subtle sense of humor, and watching young children “trying to figure stuff out.” Her advice for current and future physical educators: “Strive to be the best. Don’t settle. Be patient -- change takes time.” Her biggest hope for the future of physical education is that our programs become more standards-based, and that schools will be held accountable for the quality of their physical education programs. When asked “Who inspires you today?” her response was simply “Young teachers who are really good at what they do.” And when asked how she would like to be remembered, she said she would want to be known as “a strong committed professional who was a good teacher educator and played a role in the standards and assessment movement of our field.” It is very apparent by her many contributions to physical education, her numerous honors and awards, her commitment, her persistence, and her ability to inspire the next generation of teacher educators, Dr. Rink has not only met, but greatly exceeded these expectations.

References

Ayers, S. (2008). (Personal Communication).

Castelli, D. (2008). (Personal Communication).

Gabbei, R. (2008). (Personal Communication).

Hall of Fame Index, State University of New York at Cortland Hall of Fame, Judith Rink.
Retrieved on September 13, 2008 from
http://web.cortland.edu/cclub/memberDetal.asp?hofid=146.

Jeffries, S. C. (Producer). (1997). Judy Rink: PE Today and Tomorrow, [Motion picture].
(Available from Central Washington University, Dept. PEHLS, Ellensburg, WA
98926)

Phillips, A. (2008). (Personal Communication).

Rink, J., Templeton, J., Hewitt, P., Dawkins, M. Mitchell, M., Barton, G., et al. (2002,
March 1). High stakes assessment in South Carolina (NASPE Standards in Action).
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Retrieved on September
23, 2008 from High Beam Research.

Rink, J. E.(2004, August 1). It’s okay to be a beginner: teach a motor skill, and the skill may
be learned. Teach how to learn a motor skill, and many skills can be learned – even
after a student leaves school (Concepts and Principles of Physical Education – Part
1).
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Retrieved on September
23, 2008 from High Beam Research.

Rink, J. E. (2007). PE Teaching: It’s All about Outcomes. PELinks4U, 9 (7). Retrieved on
October 17, 2008 from
http://www.pelinks4u.org/archives/070107.htm

Rink, J. E. (2008).  Resume'. (Personal Communication).

Rink, J. E. (2008). (Personal Communication)

Taylor, K. (2008). (Personal Communication).

Notes: 
November, 2008 A paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of PE 552: History and Philosophy of Physical Education and Sport Azusa Pacific University